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Translational Aspects of Biotechnology for Diagnosis and Prognosis

Translational Aspects of Biotechnology for Diagnosis and Prognosis

Discover the fascinating world of biotechnology, from medical applications to sustainable agriculture, and its impact on healthcare and the future.

Prof. Nilesh Kumar Sharma
March, 31 2023
2800

Biotechnology, a solid combination of medical applications and booming technologies are revolutionizing our world by unleashing the power of nature with science. From curing diseases to sustainable agriculture, it has infinite potential. It entails using diverse scientific techniques in Genetic Engineering and Recombinant DNA technology to manipulate and modify biological systems for a variety of useful purposes such as developing new medications, enhancing crop yields, and creating renewable energy sources.

The sphere of biotechnology includes the following domains:

Medical Biotechnology:

This sector encompasses the development of new therapies and cures for diseases and disorders. It includes vaccine development, gene therapy, and therapeutic protein production.

Industrial Biotechnology:

The utilisation of biological systems and organisms to produce commercially important products. It encompasses the production of biofuels, bioplastics, and enzymes for use in a variety of sectors.

Agricultural Biotechnology:

This sector deals with enhancing crop quality and productivity. It includes genetically modified crops, plant tissue culture, and microbes to improve soil fertility.

Environmental Biotechnology:

It emphasizes the application of several biological systems to rectify environmental concerns. This includes bioremediation, which employs microorganisms to clean up contaminated soil and water, as well as biofuel production from waste materials.

Marine Biotechnology:

This involves the utilization of marine organisms and their products for the development of aquaculture technology, production of marine-derived pharmaceuticals and application of marine organisms in bioremediation.

Nano-biotechnology:

Nano-biotechnology entails the creation of nano-sensors, the use of nano-materials for drug delivery and the use of nanotechnology in the study of biological systems at the molecular level.

Bioinformatics:

The Bioinformatics domain involves the application of computer science and information technology to the field of biotechnology. It includes developing tools for analyzing biological data such as DNA sequences and protein structures.

 

Biotechnological tools aided by diagnostic and prognostic approaches within the medical and healthcare domain are implied in order to improve the patient treatment experience.

In this article, we will explore the latest developments in biotechnology, the current situation of biotechnology in healthcare, its perspectives, and its potential impact on future medicine. Gene editing technology like CRISPR/Cas 9 is designed in biotechnology to potentially cure genetic disorders. Additionally, biotechnological research is used to create newer medicines. These advancements dramatically transformed medicine sector and have led to innovative approaches toward healthcare. Areas of biotech having a greater impact on the patient-clinician equation are gene therapy, liquid biopsy and precision medicine. These also include regenerative medicine involving the use of stem cells to repair damaged tissues and organs.

 

Diagnostics has its roots in ‘Translational Biology!

Significant research made in this sector has been directly proportional to the standard of healthcare facilities provided in it. High-throughput diagnostic tools like PCR, ELISA, and microarray technologies enable healthcare professionals to upgrade patient treatment. To predict the progression of a disease and its response to treatment, prognostic approaches are being used.

This includes metabolomics, genomics, and proteomics. Another interesting face of prognosis is genomic profiling wherein clinicians obtain molecular signature of the disease; the detection of circulating tumor cells is prominent in the evaluation of cancer patients.

‘Metabopsy’ is the hallmark of CTRC at our Institute running under the guidance of Prof. Nilesh Kumar Sharma. Metabobsy is derived from metabolites, a form of biomarkers and biopsy, defined as medical examination or procedure. We have developed an in-house and novel vertical tube gel electrophoresis (VTGE) -assisted metabopsy such as mil teeth metabopsy, nail metabopsy as Discard to Diagnosis (DTD) and non-invasive approaches.

These technologies explore the potential of metabolites derived from biological samples collected through non-invasive manner for variety of medical conditions including IMD (Inborn Metabolic Disorders), fibrotic conditions and cancer. We have also developed Nail Impression Technique (NIT) as a non-invasive and AI-based tool for diagnosis. These innovative tools and technologies have a potential applicable in forensic sciences. The CTRC lab has been credited with five awards, more than 100 publications and six Indian patents (Published/Grant in progress). https://vidwan.inflibnet.ac.in/profile/103121. 

In conclusion,

the field of biotechnology is truly fascinating and dynamic with infinite opportunities in various domains including diagnosis and prognosis of human diseases.

Authors: Vaidehi Patela, Priyanka V. Sonara, Ameya Hebalea, Akash Sawadatkara, Prof. Nilesh Kumar Sharmaa

Edited by: Dr. Viniti Vaidyab

Affiliations:

  1. a Cancer and Translational Research Centre (CTRC), Dr. D.Y. Patil Biotechnology & Bioinformatics Institute, Dr. D. Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Pimpri, Pune-  411033.
  2. Microbial Diversity Research Centre, Biotechnology, Dr. D. Y. Patil Biotechnology & Bioinformatics Institute, Dr. D. Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Pimpri, Pune-411033.

 

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